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Civil War in

Greene County

Mills of

Greene County

Old Wire Road

Greene County Townships

Greene County Historical Sites

University Club Historical Markers

1820 - 1829



  • On August 10 Missouri became a state. 

  • Soon after Missouri became a state, white settlers began moving into southwest Missouri. The primary route was down the Mississippi to the White River in Arkansas, up the White River to the James, and up the James to Wilson and Pearson's Creeks, thereby reaching present day Greene County. They established themselves as squatters, but when it was determined that the Indians had legal claim to the area, they were forced to move on, or as many of them did, bargained with the Indians and remained where they were. 

  • Names associated with this early settlement were: Augustine and William Friend, Jeremiah Pearson, John P. Pettijohn, and Joseph Phillabert. With the Delaware came a man by the name of James Wilson, who became known as the "squaw man" because he took Indian women as wives. He settled along a stream that flowed into the James River and it became known as Wilson Creek.



  • The Delaware Indians had relocated to the Ozarks in 1818 after they were forced to cede their Ohio claims for land west of the Mississippi River. On September 24, 1829, they were forced to move again when they were relocated to a reservation in Kansas. That fall marked the arrival of John Polk Campbell and his brother, Madison. They establish their claim at the "natural well" and return to Tennessee. 

  • Crawford County was organized.

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1830 - 1839



  • In February, the William Fulbright party arrived from Tennessee. William selected a spot around a spring that later took the name, Fulbright Spring. His brother, John, settled around another spring and built a cabin. This spring later became known as Jones Spring. His brother-in-law, A. J. Burnett, not realizing that there was a claim on the "natural well," built a cabin on the hill above it.

  • John Polk Campbell returned to the area with his family on March 4. When it was determined that Campbell had a prior claim to the site around the "natural well," Burnett relinquished his cabin and resettled at a new site.



  • On January 16, the Joseph Rountree family arrived from Maury County, Tennessee. Rountree later starts the first school. Along with the Rountree family comes Sidney S. Ingram.

  • In October, Junius T. Campbell, youngest brother of John Polk Campbell, arrived. He opens the first store.

  • Other early Greene County settlers who arrived in 1831 were Samuel Painter and Radford Cannefax.



  • Kickapoo Indian removal began on October 24.



  • Greene County was created from Wayne County on January 2. Named after Nathanael Greene, Revolutionary War hero, the county included most of Southwest Missouri.

  • On March 11, the first session of the County Court was held at the home of John Polk Campbell. One item of business was the establishment of the county townships.

  • On August 5, the first election in the newly formed Greene County was held.



  • The General Election was held on August 4. 503 votes are cast.

  • That fall the first Post Office in Southwest Missouri was established with Junius T. Campbell as postmaster. The mail was brought once a month from Harrison's Store on the Little Piney River.



  • By 1835 the settlement of Fulbright and Campbell Springs had been named Springfield. To ensure that Springfield would become the county seat, John P. Campbell pledged 50 acres of his tract to the county for county purposes. He had laid off the 50 acres into lots and streets and a public square patterned after Columbia, Tennessee, his birthplace. Springfield was officially designated the county seat in 1835 but not finalized until 1836.

  • On September 1, the U. S. Land Office opened, with J. H. Haden appointed Registrar.



  • On August 27, John Polk Campbell formally deeds 50 acres of land to Greene County for county purposes. A surveyor was appointed to lay off the tract of land into lots and their subsequent sales.

  • The first presidential election since the organization of the county was held in November. Greene County favored the Democratic nominee, Martin Van Buren, as did the state.

  • On November 28, Sydney S. Ingram submitted plans for a courthouse to be erected in the center of the public square. It was to be a two-story brick building.

  • That winter marked the "Osage War." Bands of Osage Indians had crossed the state border into Missouri. Governor Boggs ordered Col. Charles S. Yancey, commander of the Greene County militia, to compel the Indians to return to their own territory. Col. Yancey postponed calling out his troops, deciding instead to go in person to accomplish his mission. When this proved to be impossible, he returned home to muster the troops. When the troops returned to Springfield they found the citizens in a state of agitation, believing that the entire county was in danger. The citizens were put at ease when assured that their fears were unfounded.

  • The Ozark Standard newspaper was established by J. C. Tuberville. The name was later changed to the Ozark Eagle.


  • The first bridges built in the county were bridges over two streams on the state road to Arkansas and a bridge across the "town branch" north of the square.

  • On March 13, Boone Township organized.

  • The "Sarcoxie War," another Osage Indian disturbance, occurred that summer.

  • On December 1, government land in Greene County became available.


  • On February 19, Springfield was incorporated with a population of about 250.

  • On May 9, the Benton and Ozark Townships were organized.

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1840 - 1849



  • In the November 1840 Presidential election, Greene County went for the Democratic candidate, Martin Van Buren, over Whig candidate, William Henry Harrison. According to historian Return Holcombe, the election was not as exciting as in other parts of the country. Of course, Harrison was elected due in part to the dissatisfaction with the incumbent, Van Buren, who received the blame for the less than ideal economic conditions of the time.

  • The first census for Greene County was taken in 1840. The population stood at 5,372.



  • John Andrew Stephens established an academy for boys known as Stephens' Academy. It was located in Springfield at Kimbrough and short Benton.



  • In May, the first issue of the Springfield Advertiser, a Democratic paper, was established by Warren H. Graves. The paper continued until 1861.

  • That fall, the presidential election pitted Henry Clay (Whig) with James Knox Polk (Democrat). In Greene County Polk was favored both locally and nationally. This was also the beginning of the Congressional career of John S. Phelps that lasted eighteen years.


  • Springfield's first bank, a branch of the State Bank of Missouri, opened in May.



  • Cass Township organized.

  • On May 13, the United States declared war against Mexico marking the beginning of the Mexican War. The first company of Greene County soldiers was organized under the command of Capt. A. M. Julian. It was never mustered into a regiment and returned home.


  • In May, Capt. Samuel Boak organized a company for service in the Mexican War. It became part of the 3rd Missouri Mounted Infantry Volunteers and saw service in Chihuahua and El Paso.


  • This year's presidential election was somewhat low key. The Democrats were favored to win with Cass and Butler over Whig candidates, Zachary Taylor and Millard Filmore. Taylor won nationwide.

  • Springfield's population stood at 344; 108 of those were slaves.

  • On September 10, a new paper, the Springfield Whig, made its appearance. It was edited by Littleberry Hendrick. It ceased publication after a year.

  • Rev. Charles Carlton, a Christian minister from Canada, established a female college on College Street near Main known as Carlton College.


  • That February a temperance revival broke out in Springfield as meetings were held and a lodge, the Sons of Temperance, was formed.

  • By the close of the 1840s, Greene County was twelfth in the state in terms of population and tenth in the value of real and personal property.

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1850 - 1859



  • The 1850 census gave Greene County a population of 12,785 and Springfield about 500.

  • The August 1850 election was the most exciting in the history of the nation, according to historian, Return Holcombe. There was the question of California's admission to statehood with a constitution prohibiting slavery along with other bills in Congress relating to fugitive slaves. In Missouri the Democratic party was split between the Thomas Hart Benton Democrats and the anti-Benton Democrats. The Whig party constituted the third party. The county went for the Benton Democrats. Nationwide, Zachary Taylor (Whig) was elected president but died in office and was succeeded by Millard Fillmore in July.

  • The California gold fever was still going strong with men from Greene County joining the caravan.



  • On October 4, Benton and anti-Benton Democrats met to resolve their differences and present a united front to the Whigs. The truce was characterized as a "hollow truce" as it only lasted for two years.

  • The Greene County Court ordered that dram shop (liquor store) licenses be suspended for a year. This was due to a perception of excessive drunkenness on the part of some and also as the results of the efforts of the Sons of Temperance.



  • On January 5, the anti-dram shop order of the previous year was repealed over the protest of the temperance people and to the delight of the anti-prohibitionists. In the face of continued discontent, the rescinding and reinstatement of the order continued for a time with the anti-prohibitionists finally coming out the winner.

  • The First Baptist Church was organized in July by B. McCord Roberts and composed of members of the Liberty Baptist Church. The first meeting place was a brick structure on Olive Street.

  • In August, Sterling Price was elected Governor on the Democrat ticket. There was also a Presidential election with Franklin Pierce the Democratic candidate and Winfield Scott the Whig nominee. Greene County favored Pierce over Scott with Pierce being elected nationwide.

  • On May 28, John Polk Campbell died at Oil Springs, Texas.



  • The Southwestern Flag newspaper was succeeded by the Lancet, a supporter of the Benton faction.



  • In the 1854 election, Congressman John S. Phelps switched his politics and ran as an anti-Benton Democrat. Phelps was reelected.



  • On May 3, the first number of the Springfield Mirror, a Know Nothing party newspaper, was issued by J. W. Boren. The Know Nothing party was the successor to the Whig party.

  • A County poorhouse was authorized in July. It was to be located on 200 acres of the James Douglass farm.

  • In September, a tax was levied for payment of $20,000, the amount of the first installment of the county's subscription for the Southwest Branch of the Pacific Railroad heading toward Springfield in its construction.

  • Citizens of Springfield and Greene County were provided some diversion in November when the 2nd US Cavalry passed through on their way from Jefferson Barracks to the Utah Territory to help quell the Mormons.



  • Farmer Township, later changed to Center, was established in April.

  • Springfield's population reached 721.

  • The August election of 1856 was both a Presidential and Gubernatorial election as well as a Congressional election. Two presidential parties nominated candidates. The Democratic Party, headed by James Buchanan and John C. Breckenridge, and the Know Nothing, headed by Millard Fillmore and Andrew Jackson. The Republican party ran its first ticket with John C. Fremont the presidential candidate. In Greene County there were only the Democratic and Know Nothing party candidates. The Democratic party carried Greene County, as well as the nation.

  • On September 1, pro-slavery men of Greene County organized to provide assistance to the pro-slavery element in Kansas who were determined that when Kansas became a state, it would be open to slavery.

  • In October, the first Greene County fair was held on the grounds of the Southwest Missouri District Fair Association about a mile and one half west of Springfield. Marcus Boyd was chairman of the Association.

  • Note was made of the new advertisements that began appearing in the Mirror in contrast to the plain and simple ads in previous years.

  • That fall a daily mail line was established between Springfield and Jefferson City.


  • In June, the two private female schools, Carlton College and the Springfield Female High School, held examinations. On August 21 the Springfield Male Academy held examinations.

  • October 3-6 marked the second annual Southwest Missouri Agricultural and Mechanical Association fair.

  • On November 18, the first number of the Weekly Missouri Tribune was issued by John M. Richardson. It survived only one year.



  • The Thespian Society gave a series of programs at the Temperance Hall that winter.

  • On July 4, the Presbyterian church in Springfield was dedicated.

  • By September, Springfield had two male and five female academies besides two music schools.

  • Also during this month Springfield instituted a curfew to control "loitering or wandering about" at unusual hours.

  • The first westbound Butterfield Overland Stage headed for California passed through Springfield on September 17 amid a tremendous celebration.

  • The third annual Southwestern Association fair held. A new attraction was added in which young men competed in a tilting match on horseback with a suspended ring. The winner would receive a gold chain and cross which he would subsequently present to a young woman of his choice as "queen of beauty". J. A. Foster won the match and presented the prize to Mattie C. Nevill.

  • On October 4, the county appropriated $3,000 to purchase the land from Charles Sheppard and J. B. Kimbrough as the site for a new courthouse. The same day $40,000 was appropriated for the construction costs that would include a new jail. Josiah Leedy was awarded the contract for the construction.

  • On October 22, the stage passed through Springfield on its return trip from San Francisco.

  • At the end of 1858, the population of Springfield was about 1,200. There were sixteen mercantile houses, two drug stores, a cabinet shop, a furniture store, seven blacksmith shops, two tin shops, two saddle and harness shops, three hotels, three wagon shops, three jewelry stores, two printing offices (the Mirror and Advertiser), three churches, five schools, ten lawyers, five doctors, four clergymen, four lodges (Masons, Odd Fellows, Sons of Temperance, and Good Templars), three tailor shops, two milliners, a daguerrean gallery, a carding machine, a gunsmith shop, three butcher shops, a hatters, three confectionery stores, a livery stable, three boot & shoe shops, a dentist, a land office, a bank, twenty carpenters, a house & sign painter, two brick masons, and a saloon.



  • On January 5, a military company was organized. Their uniform consisted of a blue frock-coat, light blue pants, a cloth cap with plume.

  • Bids were taken in February for a two-story brick college building on the southwest corner of Campbell and State on a lot opposite the old cemetery.

  • In the spring Christian County was formed from Greene County.

  • In April, three new townships organized, Pond Creek, Wilson and Clay.

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1860 - 1869



  • April 3 - Springfield was placed in telegraphic communication with the rest of the world when telegraph wires were strung linking Springfield with Bolivar and Jefferson City. The line was afterward extended to Fayetteville and Ft. Smith, Arkansas.

  • April 23 - The Democratic National Convention was held at Charleston, SC. The party split. The Regular Democrat candidate for President was Stephen A. Douglas. The Southern States Rights candidate was John C. Breckenridge. The Republican candidate was Abraham Lincoln. The Constitutional Union party candidate was John Bell. Statewide for governor, the Regular Democrat candidate was Claiborne Fox Jackson. The Southern candidate was Hancock Jackson. The Republican candidate was J. B. Gardenhire and the Union candidate was Sample Orr. This was the first time the Republican Party had a state organization listed on the ballot.

  • November - Abraham Lincoln elected President. In Missouri, Claiborne Jackson was elected governor. Greene County favored the Union Party and Bell. Lincoln received only 42 votes.

  • December 20 - South Carolina secedes from the Union. Six more states follow in January.

  • December 31 - The Missouri General Assembly convened in Jefferson City and the new governor was inaugurated. One of his first acts was to recommend the calling of a state convention to ascertain Missouri's position in regard to secession.



  • April 1 - Three rooms in the new Greene County Court House were completed and the clerks of county, circuit and probate moved into their offices.

  • August 10 - The Battle of Wilson's Creek was the first major Civil War engagement west of the Mississippi River, involving about 5400 Union troops and 12,000 Confederates. Although a Confederate victory, the Southerners failed to capitalize on their success.

  • November - Abraham Lincoln elected President. In Missouri, Claiborne Jackson was elected governor. Greene County favored the Union Party and Bell. Lincoln received only 42 votes.

  • December 20 - South Carolina secedes from the Union. Six more states follow in January.

  • December 31 - The Missouri General Assembly convened in Jefferson City and the new governor was inaugurated. One of his first acts was to recommend the calling of a state Convention to ascertain Missouri's position in regard to secession.



  • February 12 - Price is forced to evacuate Springfield upon the approach of Union forces under command of Maj. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis. Price's retreat and the pursuit of Curtis is extended into northwest Arkansas and culminates in the Battle of Pea Ridge, March 7-8. Springfield is once again occupied by Union forces.

  • March 27 - County Court and Judicial functions resume in Greene County after months of inactivity, uncertainty and confusion.

  • April 1 - Greene County farmers began their spring planting, assured that they would be protected by the presence of the Federal army occupying Springfield. Large amounts of military stores began to be concentrated in Springfield as it became a base of operations and supply for the Union forces in southwest Missouri.

  • July 22 - Organization of the Enrolled Missouri Militia, a force designed to control guerilla activities that were causing problems in the State. The 72 and 74 EMM were composed mainly of Greene County men.

  • Late Summer - Construction begins on the fortification of Springfield which involved the construction of five forts at strategic locations around Springfield to protect the large stores of government property. Only four of the forts were actually completed.

  • November 4 - The major issue of this election was emancipation in Missouri. The emancipationists favored gradual emancipation of slaves and compensation made to loyal owners. The anti-emancipationists, of course, were opposed. In the election, Congressman Phelps, an anti-emancipationists, was defeated by Col. S. H. Boyd, the emancipationists candidate.



  • January 7-8 - Battle of Springfield. An attack by Confederate General John Marmaduke in an attempt to capture the city of Springfield and its military stores. The attack was repulsed and Springfield spared from capture by the Confederate forces.



  • Quoting Return Holcombe in his 1883 History of Greene County: "Among all of the Federal military commanders at Springfield, Gen. John B. Sanborn seems now to be most kindly remembered. His administration of affairs was at a most critical period, in 1864-1865, when the passions of men were most violently inflamed by the war, and they were the most difficult of control. The soldiery had become accustomed to scenes of violence and disorder, and the citizens were as hard to manage as the soldiers. Some loyalists were fanatical, some secessionists were desperate. Oftentimes the general was assailed by extreme radical Union men for his protection of the persons and property of 'rebels' from those who wished to 'vex the Midianites,' to spoil and spare them not, and again the Confederate partisans would denounce him for his unrelenting pursuit of bushwhackers, who were rendering so much property insecure, and so many lives unsafe. But Gen. Sanborn kept steadily on his course of repressing and repelling the violent of both factions, of protecting the good and punishing the bad, and with a wise conservatism so managed affairs that at last all but the most disreputable endorsed him."

  • September 25 - The Missouri Patriot was established in Springfield, edited by A. F. Ingram and Republican in politics. It succeeded the Missourian.

  • November - In the November election every township in the county went Republican for Lincoln. S. H. Boyd was returned to Congress, defeating John R. Kelso.



  • January 21 - The Radicals hold large meeting in Springfield to celebrate the passage of the emancipation ordinance by the State Convention on January 11.

  • March - a census of the county showed the population to be 13,899, an increase of 713 in five years.

  • April 9 - The surrender at Appomattox. Springfield celebrates the next day with a 200 gun salute from the forts.

  • May 13 - Kirby Smith's Trans-Mississippi Army, except a portion of Shelby's Brigade, surrender to Canby. Gen. Price, Shelby and other Confederate Missourians, about 500 in all, go to Mexico. Soon ex-Confederate soldiers begin returning home.

  • April 14 - The death of President Lincoln.

  • April 18 - The adoption of the Drake Constitution to be presented to voters on June 6. Anyone who had participated in or voluntarily aided or encouraged the rebellion, was disbarred from voting, holding office, or practicing their profession. The new Constitution was adopted by voters by only a 1,862 majority.

  • November 23 - The last of the Federal soldiers stationed in Greene County left for their homes.

  • October 17 - An Orphan's Fair at the Court House was held by the Orphan's Home Association to raise funds for the relief of the orphans of soldiers.



  • May - The "Regulators", a vigilante group headquartered at Walnut Grove, began terrorizing the county.

  • November - This election was unique in that all those who had been disloyal to the United States in any way were not allowed to vote. The contending parties were the new Democrats, represented by John Phelps, who favored a restoration of the seceding states, and the Republicans, also called Radicals, because they favored a more harsh, vindictive treatment of former rebels. Greene County overwhelmingly favored the Republican candidates.


  • April 4 - The first issue of the Springfield Leader, a Democratic paper, came out.

  • July 10 - The establishment of the National Cemetery.


  • Population of Greene County reached 12,792.

  • February 22 - A Republican Club was formed at Springfield with James Abbott, president.

  • May - Decoration Day was held in Springfield for the first time. S. H. Boyd delivered a speech.

  • July 4 - Ground was broken and work began on the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad.

  • July 27 - S. H. Boyd was chosen by the Republican Congressional Convention for the district over Col. J. J. Gravelly and John R. Kelso.

  • August 17 - The Greene County Horticultural Society was organized with C. F. Levitt, president.

  • August 22 - A ratification meeting was held when news reached Springfield that Grant and Colfax had been nominated. A "Grant and Colfax pole" 145 feet in length was raised in the center of the public square.

  • November - The first presidential election since the war. The Republicans nominated Ulysses Grant and the Democrats, Seymour. The Republicans won, as would be expected with the southerners, who would ordinarily vote Democrat, not voting.


  • February - Five Sunday Schools were organized by Rev. W. J. Haydon.

  • September 17-18 - The first fair of the Greene County Horticultural Society was held.

  • November 27 - An organizational meeting was held for the purpose of establishing a Confederate Burial Association. The organization was to be responsible for the removal of the remains of dead Confederate soldiers in and around Springfield to a permanent cemetery. Land was purchased adjoining the Federal Cemetery on the north and Hazelwood Cemetery on the south. There were 501 interments, of which 238 were from Wilson's Creek and most were unknown.

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1870 - 1879



  • February 2 - The town of Ash Grove incorporated.

  • April 21 - The completion of the Southwest branch of the Atlantic & Pacific Railroad to Springfield. Later known as the St. Louis-San Francisco and still later the Frisco. Blacks celebrate the ratification of the 15th Amendment with a mass meeting and parade.

  • May 3 - The grand opening of the new railroad. Due to the influence of land speculators, the depot was located a mile north of Springfield. Dignitaries and others involved in the ceremonies had to be transported by carriage to the Public Square where the ceremonies were to take place. A rainstorm necessitated a move to the City Hall. Later that evening a ball was held at the City Hall. By May 19, trains were running on regular schedule.

  • June - The first black jury ever sworn and impaneled in Greene County was convened.

  • July 4 - The incorporation of the town of North Springfield where the depot was located. A street railway system connected the two towns, the town of Springfield becoming known as "Old Town." The east-west street separating the two towns was called Division.

  • July 25 - The Republican Congressional Convention met in Springfield. The 1870 contest was most heated between two wings of the Republican Party, the Radicals and the Liberals. The question was over universal amnesty and enfranchisement and repeal of the Missouri ironclad oath. These were questions involving the destiny of those who had supported the recent rebellion.

  • August 22 - The Republican County Convention met to select delegates to the State convention. Dissent was so intense that an agreement was impossible. The selection was left to a primary election in September.

  • September 26 - Liberal Republicans held their County Convention. Meanwhile the Democrats remained silent, hoping to benefit from the Republican split by attracting Liberal Republicans.

  • November - The Republicans surrendered their dominance in state politics to the Democrats thanks to the split in the Republican ranks. The constitutional amendments relating to abolishing loyalty oaths and similar issues carried.



  • January - The first permanent school building opened. It was located on the northwest corner of Olive and Jefferson.

  • September 7 - Metropolitan Hotel on College street was opened with a banquet and ball.

  • The Public Square at this time was still dirt and/or mud depending upon the weather. A wooden bell tower was erected to sound a fire alarm. The bell in the tower weighed 1000 pounds.



  • March 1 - The Springfield Wagon Company was organized with S.H. Boyd elected president of the company.

  • November - In the presidential election voting was once again extended to all eligible voters, both North and South. Greene County voters favored Grant, the Republican, over Greeley, the Democrat.



  • May 30 - Dedication of the Bailey monument at the National Cemetery. The monument honoring the Union soldiers killed in the Battle of Springfield was provided for in the will of Dr. T. J. Bailey.

  • June 23 - The Springfield Grange, first Grange in Southwest Missouri, was organized.

  • July 28 - Drury College opened in Springfield with 30 students and 3 instructors. The college was operated by the Congregational Church.



  • The 1874 election was a contest between the Democrats and the People's party, or Reform party. Democrats coined the term "Tadpole party" to describe some of their members, because they"were old Democrats gradually changing to Republicans," as a tadpole changes into a frog.

  • August 26 - The Democratic convention was held and nominated Charles H. Hardin for Governor.

  • September 3 - The People's party held their convention and nominated William Gentry for governor.

  • November - In the November election, Greene County favored the People's party candidate for governor. Statewide, the Democrat, Hardin, was elected.


  • Jonathan Fairbanks begins a 37-year term as Springfield Public Schools Superintendent.


  • July 4 - A Centennial celebration was held at Drury College.

  • July 22 - John S. Phelps is given an enthusiastic welcome home from the Democratic State Convention, complete with a parade from the Frisco Depot to "old town," where he had been chosen as the Democratic nominee for Governor. Phelps was subsequently elected.

  • November - The first Greenback candidates appeared on the ballot.


  • May 20 - The first regular train service on the Springfield & Western Missouri railroad began. For the first few years the train only ran as far as Ash Grove.


  • June 1 -The Springfield & Western Missouri railroad was transferred to the Kansas City, Fort Scott & Gulf Railroad, assuring Springfield of rail access to Kansas City and the Gulf.

This information was researched by members of the Founders Park Research Committee and others including Jean Gaffga Rayl, Jean Fulbright, Mabel Carver Taylor, Charles Sheppard, Rex Edmonson, Leo Huff, and Hayward Barnett.

Research sources include: History of Greene County Missouri, 1883, by Return Holcombe, St. Louis Western Historical Company; Past and Present of Greene County, Missouri by Jonathan Fairbanks and Clyde Edwin Tuck, A. W. Brown & Company, 1915; History and Directory of Springfield and North Springfield, Missouri, 1878; Edward M. Shepard, Missouri Historical Review, 1929; Historical Atlas of the United States, National Geographic Society, 1993; Selected Articles, Springfield Leader, Springfield News-Leader, Springfield Daily News, Springfield News-Leader & Press.

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