Encyclopedia of Greene County History

Style Guide

 

The Encyclopedia uses the Chicago Manual of Style, Fifteenth Edition, as its base style. The following information provides some general style guidelines for your entry.

 

Abbreviations:

  • Official Titles

    • Spell out instead of abbreviating titles preceding last names: Governor Boggs; Senator Blount; Representative Short.

    • Abbreviate the person’s title if the person’s whole name is used: Gov. Lilburn Boggs; Sen. Roy Blount; Rep. Dewey J. Short

  • Person’s initials

    • Use a space after the first letter: H. L. Mencken

  • Political affiliation

    • List a politician’s political party and state (outside of Arkansas) after a name: Sen. Richard Mentor Johnson (D-KY).

    • List a Missouri politician’s party without the state abbreviation: Sen. Claire McKaskill (D)

  • Confederate or Union designation

    • List a Civil War regiment’s affiliation in parentheses using CS for Confederate States and US (no periods) for United States: Second Kansas Infantry (US)

  • Upper-case abbreviations

    • Do not use periods or spaces: CIA, PhD, UN, GI

  • Lower-case abbreviations

    • Use periods: a.k.a., e.g., i.e.

  • Academic Degrees

    • List as abbreviations: BA, BS, BSE, MA, MFA, etc., followed by the field of study: Goodman graduated from Southwest Missouri State University (SMSU) with an BFA in drama.

    • Do not capitalize or abbreviate the generic terms of degrees: He got his bachelor’s degree from Southwest Missouri State University (SMSU); Drury University offers master’s degrees.

  • ​Institutions and Organizations

    • ​Write out the full name on first reference, followed by the accepted acronym if one is commonly used: the National Organization for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); Missouri State University (MSU)

      • ​After the first reference, use the acronym: the NAACP, MSU

  • ​​United States

    • Spell out as a noun: He was born in the United States.

    • Abbreviate as an adjective: He was born in a U.S. territory.

      • ​Do not put a space in U.S.

        • ​Always use periods except when noting a Civil War regiment’s affiliation (US) in parentheses.

 

Greene County/Missouri/Region-specific Information:

  • Identifying town locations

    • Include county names in parentheses immediately after the first reference to a town or city in Missouri: Washburn (Barry County)

  • Institutions

    • When mentioning an institution in Missouri—including a cemetery—name the town it is in: Main Library in Springfield.

  • Natives

    • The term Missourians is used for Missouri natives/residents.

  •  Clarifying information

    • On first reference to someone from Missouri who is not the subject of an entry, include that person’s place of residence or what the person is known for: Missouri governor Matt Blunt of Springfield, married his wife Melanie, also of Springfield, in May 1997.

  • ​Territories

    • ​Missouri

      • ​Differentiate between Missouri as a state and Missouri Territory.

        • ​Missouri Territory was part of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803; Louisiana Territory was renamed Missouri Territory on June 4, 1812 to differentiate it from the newly admitted state of Louisiana.

        • Missouri became a state on August 10, 1821.

    • ​​Indian Territory/Oklahoma

      • ​Prior to 1889, call the area Indian Territory.

      • From 1890 to 1906, differentiate between Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory.

      • From 1907 forward, call the area Oklahoma.

 

Capitalization:

  • Academic disciplines

    • Do not capitalize unless they are part of a department or an official course name, or are themselves proper nouns (e.g., English, Latin): She has published widely in the history of religions; She was a math professor; Jones is chair of the MSU Department of History. 

  • Buildings and Institutions 

    • The names of buildings and monuments are capitalized unless the generic form is used: the JQH Arena, but the arena.

    •  ​The full names of institutions, companies, and their departments are capitalized: Springfield ReManufacturing; CoxHealth; Missouri State University

    • The word "the" preceding a name, even when part of the official title, is lowercased in running text: I saw the Springfield Symphony Orchestra perform Handel's Messiah.

    • Generic terms such as school and company are lowercased when used alone.

  • Directions

    • Compass directions are not capitalized unless they are referring to specific regions: He traveled west; The North and South fought in the Civil War.

  •  ​Historical Periods and Events

    • Traditional names of periods are capitalized: Reconstruction

    •  ​Names of specific historic events and groups are capitalized: the New Deal; the Springfield Streetcar Strike

    • Do not capitalize secession.

    • Names of specific natural phenomena or disasters of historic dimensions are often capitalized: the New Madrid Earthquakes 

      • General names of phenomena are usually lower-cased: the earthquake

  •  Military terms 

    • The word battle is capitalized only when it is part of an accepted term: the Battle of the Britian

    • Civil War battles, actions, and engagements are capitalized: the Battle of Wilson’s Creek; the Action at Springfield​

    • Military divisions are capitalized only after a country name: U.S. Army; the army; U.S. Navy; the navy; naval battles

    • Army is not capitalized for Civil War armies: Confederate army; Union army

    •  ​Axis and Allied powers of World War II are capitalized: The Allied powers faced the Axis powers in Germany.

    •  World War I, not First World War or World War One; WWI can be used after the first reference or as an adjective: WWI battles

    •  ​World War II, not Second World War or World War Two; WWII can be used after the first reference or as an adjective: WWII planes

  •  Political terms

    •  ​Civil, military, religious, and professional titles are capitalized when they immediately precede a personal name: President Truman; Governor Carnahan; State Auditor Ashcroft

    •  ​Titles are not capitalized if they stand alone: the president; the president of the United States; the governors; state auditor of Missouri

    •  ​The Constitution of the United States is capitalized: the U.S. Constitution

      •  ​​Do not capitalize constitution for state constitutions: the Missouri constitution

      •  ​​Incomplete or generic forms are usually lowercased: the treaty; constitutional law

    •  ​When a person is/was a member of the legislature in Missouri, make it clear whether the person is/was in the Missouri House of Representatives or the Missouri Senate. This also applies to U.S. legislators.

 

Cultural Groups

  • Use the following terms on first reference: Native American, African American, Latin American. After the first reference, use Indian, black, and Hispanic, respectively.

  • Hyphenate Native American, African American, Latin American only when they are used as adjectives: African-American literature; Native-American art; Latin-American music

  • The term Hispanic (instead of Latino/Latina) should be used as a general term to refer to someone who is of Spanish or Latin American descent.

​Gender designation

  • Use female instead of “woman” or “women” as an adjective: She was the first female to be published in Atlantic Monthly.

 

Dates

  • Use commas both before and after the year in the month-day-year style: Payne Stewart was born on January 30, 1957. Without the day, do not use a comma after the month: In April 1926, Woodruff and Avery sent a telegram to the Bureau of Public Roads.

  • When possible, list the publication or debut years for any writings, speeches, songs/albums, or interviews: Self’s songs “Sweet Nothin’s” (1959), “I’m Sorry” (1960), and “Everybody Loves Me But You” (1962) became smash hits for Brenda Lee.

  • Use numerals for years: Billings was platted in 1872

  • ​Do not start a sentence with a year: The county was organized in 1833; not: 1833 saw the organization of the county.

  • ​Calendars: for entries dealing with pre-sixteenth-century periods, use dates that correspond to the Gregorian calendar used today. Julian dates should be converted into Gregorian dates for modern readers. You may note the Julian date also if confusion may ensue by the conversion.

 

Numbers

  • Spell out:

    • When using numbers one through ninety-nine, write them out: He ate three and a half pies; Eighty-three votes decided the election.

    • Round numbers that can be spelled out in two words should be written out: Two hundred; Five thousand; two million

    • When a number begins a sentence, it should always be spelled out, even if it is greater than ninety-nine: One hundred and ten candidates were accepted.

    • Write out and hyphenate fractions: three-fifths

    • Format for U.S. dollars:

      • If the number is spelled out, so is “dollars”: six million dollars

    • ​Ordinals:

      • Spell out first through ninety-ninth: twentieth century; nineteenth-century novels; the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution; the Fifty-seventh Infantry Brigade

  • ​Use Numerals:

    • ​When the numbers are greater than ninety-nine, use numerals: The election was decided by 114 votes.

    • ​Format for U.S. dollars:

      • If a dollar amount is in numerals, precede it with the dollar sign: $450; $12 million

    • Measurements

      • Use numerals for measurements such as height, length, and distance, including fractions and decimals: He set the pole-vaulting record at 11'8" in 1998; She ran two races of 14¼ miles and 6.73 miles; The high jump record is 6' ¾".

    • Scores: use numerals for sports scores: The Bears won 6-5; Stiles scored 56 points against Evansville.

    • Ordinals: use numerals and a superscript ending for 100th and greater: 101st Airborne Division

      • ​Ordinal exception: use numerals and a superscript ending for all street numbers: 5th Street; 2nd Avenue; 119th Boulevard

    •  Times:

      • When discussing exact times, use numerals: At 5:23 a.m., we won the jackpot.

      • When rounding or using hour increments, write out the number: It is about five o’clock.

 

Place Names

  • Specify between county and city if the name of the place being described could cause confusion: Ozark County; Ozark, in Faulkner County.

  • When discussing a municipality outside of Missouri, include on first reference the state or country it is currently in: Augusta, Georgia; Edinburgh, Scotland

 

Punctuation

  • Commas:

    • ​Use a comma after all introductory phrases: After graduating from Kickapoo High School, Pitt enrolled in the University of Missouri.

    • Serial comma: items in a series are separated by commas, including the comma before the conjunction: Robin Luke, Ronnie Self, and Johnny Mullins all wrote hit songs. However, items in a series that are joined by conjunctions do not need a comma: Was the best songwriter Luke or Self or Mullins?

    • ​Use commas to set off a place of residence immediately following a person’s name unless the place is essential to the meaning of the sentence or is considered part of the person’s name: Gerald Ford, from Grand Rapids, Michigan, ascended to the White House; Clement of Alexandria; Helen of Troy

    • ​Use commas to set off the individual elements in place names: Willard, Missouri, is considered by some to be a located in the Springfield metropolitan area. Do not use commas with Jr. or Sr.: Martin Luther King Jr.

    • When using Inc., LLC, and Ltd. after a company name, use commas only if they appear in the official company name: BPS Direct, LLC, employs many in Springfield

    • Use a comma to separate independent clauses: He moved to Indian Territory with his wife, and she returned to Missouri a year later.

    • Commas and periods go inside quotation marks.

  •  Hyphens:

    • ​Do not hyphenate double-vowel words such as reelect, reenact, and reentry. Only hyphenate to differentiate meanings, as in the case of re-creation/recreation and re-cover/recover.

    •  ​Hyphenate mid-1950s but not late 1950s or early 1950s.

  •  Dashes:

    •  ​An en dash is a short dash (–). In Word, the shortcut is Ctrl+minus sign.

    •  ​An em dash is a long dash (—). In Word, the shortcut is Ctrl+Alt+minus sign.

    •  ​Year spans: use an en dash between years: 1968–1983; from 1968 to 1983, never from 1968–1983

    •  ​Day spans: use an en dash between days: The battle, which occurred August 23–25, 1863, was one of the most important of the war.

    •  ​Comma-heavy sentences: use an em dash to set off phrases when too many commas would be confusing: The mayor—who lived in a red, white, and blue house—had three sons, two daughters, and eight grandchildren.

  •  Apostrophes:

    •  Use the s after the apostrophe for the possessive of proper nouns ending in s: Arkansas’s rivers, Dickens’s novels

    •  Do not add an apostrophe before the s in plural numerals: The scores were well into the 70s for both golfers. The same rule applies for decades: That suit would have been great in the 1960s.

    •  Use curled apostrophes, not straight: the state’s, not the state's

  •  Other Punctuation:

    •  ​Ampersand: use an ampersand only if it is part of a company or organization’s official title: Barnes & Noble

    •  ​Question marks and exclamation points: these go outside quotation marks unless they are part of a title: Why do people go to see “Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?”?

    • Quotes: use curled quotes (“ ”), not straight (" "). Exception: Straight quotes and apostrophes are used for measurements, including longitude and latitude: 12 feet, 11 inches=12', 11"; 34°07'37"N 093°26'23"W

    • Avoid contractions (use do not instead of don’t), but do not alter those used inside a quotation.

 

Tense:

  • Consistency of tense makes entries accessible and easy to understand. For the most part, the tense should be simple past. She moved to Springfield at age eleven; He played guitar with with the Ozark Mountain Daredevils. 

 

Titles:

  • Italicize titles/names of:

    •  ​movies: Winter’s Bone (2010)

    •  ​albums: Fly By Wire (2013)

    •  television series: Ozark Jubilee (1955-1960)

    •  books: Missing Women and Others (1997)

    •  plays: Romeo and Juliet

    •  journals: the Moon City Review (Capitalize and italicize "the" only when it is the first word of an official title.)

    •  newspapers: the Springfield Leader (Do not capitalize or italicize "the" if it is not part of the official title.)

    •  long, book-length poems: The Rime of the Ancient Mariner

    •  long musical compositions: The Blue Danube

    •  regularly running cartoons: Li'l Abner

    •  ships, aircraft, and other vessels: the Titanic, the Spirit of Saint Louis, Apollo 12 (use numerals for all Apollo missions), USS Enterprise, HMS Frolic (note: USS, HMS, etc., are not italicized).

      • Makes of vessels are capitalized but not italicized: Boeing 747, Concorde, Dodge Caravan

    • Legal cases: the names of legal cases are italicized. The abbreviation v. (for versus) is italicized as well: Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)

  •  Use quotation marks for titles of:

    •  songs: “Sugar Shack”

    •  poems (non-book-length poems): “I Count Them When I’m Lonely”

    •  one episode of a television series: “Silver Dollar City Fair” (an episode of the Beverly Hillbillies)

    •  speeches: “The Sinews of Peace”

    •  works of art, such as paintings, sculptures, etc.: “Sun Target II”

    •  unpublished works, dissertations, and manuscripts: “Labor Unions in the Ozarks”

  • Musical media:

    • Distinguish between single and album. A single is the release of a single song, while an album refers to a long-playing phonograph, audiocassette, or compact disc recording (a grouping of songs released at the same time). Avoid the ambiguous term “record.”

 

“For Additional Information” Section:

  • The “For additional information” section at the end of your entry should guide readers to the best sources for more in-depth information on a topic. It is not a bibliography of all the sources used for the entry and should be limited to sources readily available to the general public.

    • Items in this section should use the following formats and should be alphabetized, with the lines after the first line indented:

      • ​Books: Author’s Last Name, First Name Middle Name/Initial. Title of Publication. Publisher’s City (note: include the state’s postal abbreviation if the city may be unknown to readers or could be confused with another; not needed if the publisher’s name includes the state name): Publisher, year of publication.

        • Rafferty, Milton D., The Ozarks: Land and Life, 2nd ed. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2001.

        • Blevins, Brooks, A History of the Ozarks, Volume 1: The Old Ozarks. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2018.

      • Journals: Author’s Last Name, First Name Middle Name/Initial. “Title of Article.” Title of Publication volume or series in Arabic numerals no matter how they appear on the publication (Season or Month and Year of Publication): page numbers.

        • Kamphoefner, Walter D. "Uprooted or Transplanted?: Reflections on Patterns of German Immigration to                       Missouri," Missouri Historical Review 103 (January 2009): 71-89.

        • ​Mason, Matthew. “‘The Maine and Missouri Crisis: Competing Priorities and Northern Slavery Politics in the Early         Republic.” Journal of the Early Republic 33 (Winter 2013): 675-700.

      • Newspaper Articles: Author’s Last Name, First Name Middle Name/Initial if article is attributed. “Title of Article.” Title of Publication. Date of publication, page number(s).

        • “Over Four Thousand Enrolled in Springfield Schools." The American Negro (Springfield, MO). October 25, 1890, p.          1.

        • “Posse Pursues Bandits in Jesse James Haunts: Has Continued for a Week on the Trail of 3 Robbers in $20,500               Hold-Up in Missouri.” New York Times. May 20, 1922, p. 9.

      • Obituaries: Obituary of Person’s Name (as listed in the obituary). Title of Publication. Date, page number. 

        • Obituary of Fern "Nance" Shumate. Springfield News-Leader. February 16, 2003, p. 11.

      • Archival Collections: Title of Collection. Repository with collection. Institution holding the repository, City, State.

        • Katherine Lederer Collection. Special Collections. Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri.

      • ​Interviews: Interviewee’s Last Name, Interviewee’s First Name Middle Name/Initial. ​Interviewed by Interviewer’s First Name Middle Name/Initial Last Name, Date of interview.Repository with interview, Institution holding the repository, City, State.

        • ​Little, Martin and Willie. Interviewed by Gordon McCann, August 7, 1974. Special Collections and Archives,                        Missouri State University, Springfield, MO.

      • ​Electronic Sources: Title of Web Source. Web Address (accessed date).

        • ​“Vance Randolph,” State Historical Society of Missouri—Historic Missourians.                                                                           historicmissourians.shsmo.org/historicmissourians/name/r/randolph/ (accessed July 9, 2019).

      • ​Museums/Other Locations: Museum Name. City, State. Website (if available)

        • ​History Museum on the Square, Springfield, Missouri. historymuseumonthesquare.org/

Greene County

Historical Society

P.O. 3466

Springfield, Missouri, 65808

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